Should you determine that your relationship is over and that you wish to get divorced, you will need to follow the process outlined below in order to officially terminate your marriage. If you are unsure about the nature of your relationship, take a look at our previous blog posts regarding Common law vs. Marriage and Separation and Divorce for a background regarding what is required in order to be eligible to get divorced.
Generally, the reason a divorce is granted is because two married persons have been separated for a year. However, you do not need to actually wait for a year of being separate before you can begin the divorce process. You will just have to wait until the year is up before a judge can grant you a Divorce Order. Be aware that if you reconcile the relationship for more than 90 days you will have to start the year separation period over again- (see separation and divorce article for more information). If you are getting divorced as a result of adultery or physical or mental abuse, then you do not need to wait for a year for the Divorce Order to be granted. However, you will need to provide documentation or other evidence to support your claim for adultery, physical or mental abuse as a reason for breakdown of marriage.
Both spouses do not need to agree to the divorce, either spouse can apply for it. However, if one spouse brings the application for divorce, the other spouse has the ability to contest it, see s. 8(1) of the Divorce Act (“DA”) and Rules 8 and 10 of the Family Law Rules .
One final thing to be mindful of is that judges will not grant a divorce if they believe that no reasonable arrangements have been made to support the children of the marriage, see s. 11(1)(b) of the DA.
Can I get Divorced if I’m not a Canadian Citizen?
Yes. Canadian citizenship is not a requirement for divorce in Canada. However, it is required that you or your spouse have been living in a Canadian Province for at least 1 year preceding the divorce, see s. 3(1) of the DA.
Things to Consider when Getting Divorced
Before getting divorced, it’s important to think about the following family matters:
- Custody and Access for children;
- Child and Spousal support;
- Property Division including things such as:
- Who gets the matrimonial home?
- How to split pensions;
- What happens to bank accounts?
- Who pays off any existing debts?
These issues can be dealt with in a separation agreement instead of through court which can save a lot of time and money. Judges will take separation agreements seriously and are unlikely to overturn items in the agreement unless there are deficiencies with the agreement or information was not disclosed (see our previous post on separation agreements for more information). Judges also have the ability to make decisions on the above noted matters before a divorce is finalized through Endorsements and Orders. It is best to speak to a lawyer regarding your rights and obligations to ensure that you are properly protected during the divorce process.
3 Different ways to Approach a Divorce
Depending on your particular circumstances, you have three options available to you should you wish to proceed with a divorce:
- General Application;
- This approach is taken when the parties cannot agree on how family matters should be resolved;
- Simple Application;
- You make this application where the ONLY THING you are claiming is a divorce;
- Joint Application;
- You can take this approach when both you and your ex spouse consent to a divorce and bring the application together;
- You can also bring a joint application where you both agree on all family matters.
What will I need to begin the Divorce Process?
This will depend on what type of application you bring. Different applications require different forms depending on your particular circumstances and what issues are contested between you and your ex spouse. It is highly advised that you speak with a lawyer to determine which forms you will need to ensure you are properly protected. See this link for a list of Family court documents that you can review – http://ontariocourtforms.on.ca/en/family-law-rules-forms/.
One document that you will have to have is you marriage certificate. If your marriage certificate is in another language you will have to get it translated. If your spouse is deceased you will need proof of death.
Documents you generally need for a Divorce include:
- Form 8 Application;
- Form 6B Affidavit of Service;
- Form 36A Affidavit of Divorce;
- Form 25A Divorce Order.
If there are outstanding family matters that need to be deal with, you might also need the following:
- Form 13 or 13.1 Financial Statements if support or property are contested;
- Support Deduction Order;
- Form 35.1 Child Custody and Access.
Is there a time limit for me to apply for a Divorce?
There are no time limits (what are called limitation periods) to apply for a divorce. Nor are there limitation periods to apply for child or spousal support. However, spousal support is based heavily on need; if you do not apply for spousal support for several years a judge may be inclined to see that you do not need support and may not grant it. Child support is the right of the child and courts will uphold this very strictly. See our posts on spousal support and child support for more info.
Also, there is no limitation period on custody and access applications. You must be mindful of something called the status quo however. Judges do not want to disrupt a child’s stable home environment and are less likely to change it if their current situation has been in place for some time.
There are limitation periods for an equalization payment (see previous post for more information). These limits under s. 7(3) of the Family Law Act are as follows:
An application regarding an equalization payment cannot be brought after:
- 2 years after day of Divorce of annulment;
- 6 years after separation and there is not prospect they will resume cohabiting;
- 6 months after death of a spouse.
Do I need a Lawyer in order to get Divorced?
No. You can bring the application yourself, or jointly with your spouse without the aid of a lawyer. However, it is always best to seek the counsel of a lawyer specializing in family law to ensure all your rights are protected, ESPECIALLY when there are a lot of issues between you and your ex spouse that you do not agree on. Lawyers have the expertise with the law and court procedure to ensure that the divorce can move ahead as smoothly as possible.
Even if it is a simply divorce, having a lawyer support your through the process can greatly reduce stress and complications.
When does the Divorce actually take effect?
31 days after the date on which judgment granting the divorce is rendered, see s. 12(1) of the DA. Generally, this means you have to:
- Start the application by filing and issuing appropriate documents for divorce;
- Serve other party and wait to see if they respond (minimum of 30 days after serving your ex spouse);
- File the affidavit for Divorce and Divorce Order for the Judgment if no response from your ex spouse;
- Wait for Judge to provide the Judgment granting Divorce and to sign the Order;
- Wait 31 days after the date of the signed Order.
This process usually takes a few months but can be much longer depending on how litigious both parties are. If you are granted the Divorce, s. 13 of the DA states that it is effective across all of Canada.
Furthermore, s. 12(7) of the DA states that the court must provide you with a Divorce certificate if you request it that can be effective as of a specified date.
Can I change the Divorce Order?
Once that 31 day period after the Order is signed by the Judge passes the Divorce is final. However, this does not mean that you cannot revisit certain items such as custody, access, or support. These items can always be changed should both parties consent to any changes or the court deems it just. This is because income can change, spouses may want to move or any other material change that may require a change to the arrangements in place at the time of divorce.
Contact our knowledgeable staff here at Rabideau Law to see how we can assist with any divorce or family law issues you may have.
Disclaimer: The above is for informational purposes only and does not serve as legal advice. Please speak to your lawyer to better assess your specific situation.